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Roy Lichtenstein Chronology

By Clare Bell (with additional content provided by the Lichtenstein Foundation)
copyright The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 1993/1998

1923
Oct. 27. Roy Fox Lichtenstein is born in Manhattan at Flower Hospital on
64th Street and Eastern Boulevard [now York Avenue], to Milton (1893-1946)
and Beatrice (née Werner; 1896-1991). His father, who was born in Brooklyn,
is a real-estate broker for the Garage Realty Company. His mother, who was
born in New Orleans, is a homemaker. They reside on the Upper West Side of
Manhattan at 1457 Broadway (at 96th Street) until they move to 305 West 86th
Street, where R.L. spends his childhood years.

1924
Oct. Publication of André Breton's Le Manifeste du Surréalisme (Manifesto of
Surrealism) in Paris, marking the official beginning of the Surrealist
movement.
Nov. 26. George Segal is born in Manhattan.

1925
April. The Bauhaus, an experimental school for the arts founded in 1919
under the direction of Walter Gropius, moves from Weimar to Dessau after
severe harassment by the new right-wing regional government.Its faculty
includes such major artists as Josef Albers, Vasily Kandinsky, Paul Klee,
and Oskar Schlemmer.
Oct. 22. Ernest Milton Rauschenberg is born in Port Arthur, Texas. (He
begins to use the name Bob starting in 1957 and eventually adopts the name
Robert.)

1926
Jan. Cahiers d'Art is first published in Paris. Founded by Christian Zervos,
the magazine features artists of the European avant-garde and has wide
international distribution.
Aug. 15. Willem de Kooning (born in 1904 in Rotterdam) arrives in Virginia
from Holland, a stowaway on the S.S. Shelly, and soon after sets up a studio
and residence in Hoboken, New Jersey. (He moves to West 42nd Street in New
York in 1927.)

1927
Aug. 23. Allan Kaprow is born in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
Dec. 17. R.L.'s sister Renée is born.
Dec. 27. Albert Eugene Gallatin, a collector and artist, opens Gallery of
Living Art in New York's Greenwich Village. Gallatin frequently visits
artists in Paris (including Joan Miró, Piet Mondrian, and Pablo Picasso) and
buys their works for his gallery.

1928-36
R.L.
attends kindergarten near 104th Street and West End Avenue and grades 1
through 7 at P.S. 9 (84th Street and West End Avenue).

1928
Aug. 6. Andrew Warhola is born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (He begins to
use the surname Warhol in 1949.)
Sept. 13. Robert Clark is born in New Castle, Indiana. (He replaces his
surname with the name of his home state early in his career.)

1929
Jan. 28. Claes Oldenburg is born in Stockholm, Sweden. (His family settles
in Chicago in 1934.)
Nov. 7-Dec. 7. Alfred H. Barr, Jr., organizes First Loan Exhibition:
Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, Van Gogh for the opening of the Museum of Modern
Art
(MoMA) in New York (730 Fifth Avenue).

1920s
R.L.
develops a strong interest in drawing and science and spends time
designing model airplanes. Listens to radio shows including "Flash Gordon"
and "Mandrake the Magician."

1930
May 15. Jasper Johns is born in Augusta, Georgia.

1931
Feb. 23. Tom Wesselmann is born in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Nov. 15-Dec. 5. The Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford) presents Newer
Super-Realism, organized by A. Everett Austin. The first important
exhibition of Surrealist work mounted in the U.S., it features works by
Salvador Dalí, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, André Masson, Miró, Picasso,
and others.
Nov. 18-Jan. 2, 1932. Under Director Juliana Force, the Whitney Museum of
American Art
(New York; 8 West 8th Street) mounts its first show, Opening
Exhibition/Part I of the Permanent Collection: Painting and Sculpture.

1932
Jan. 9-29. Julien Levy Gallery (602 Madison Avenue) presents Surréalisme,
the first major exhibition in New York of Surrealist art.
MoMA moves to 11 West 53rd Street.

1933
July 29. The Bauhaus, which had moved to Berlin nine months earlier, closes
after conditions imposed by the Nazis make operation impossible.
Oct. German-born Hans Hofmann opens his School of Fine Arts in New York (137
East 57th Street; it moves to 52 West 9th Street in 1936, then to 52 West
8th Street in 1938).
Nov. 28. Josef Albers arrives in North Carolina with his wife, Anni, to begin his
new teaching position at the recently opened experimental school, Black
Mountain College.
Nov. 29. James Rosenquist is born in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

1935
June 16. James Dine is born in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Aug. Works Projects Administration/Federal Art Project (W.P.A./F.A.P.) is
established as one of Roosevelt's New Deal relief projects, providing income
for many artists, including de Kooning, Arshile Gorky, and Jackson Pollock.
(The name is changed to Works Progress Administration in 1939.)
David Gascoyne's A Short Survey of Surrealism, the first English-language
monograph on the movement, is published in London.
James Thrall Soby's After Picasso is published in New York. It is the first
book on Surrealism published in the U.S.

1936
R.L.
begins 8th grade at Franklin School for Boys, a private school located
at 18 West 89th Street in Manhattan.
Dec. 9-Jan. 17, 1937. Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition is held at
MoMA, organized by Barr. One section features comparative materials,
including commercial art, folk art, scientific objects, and art by children
and the insane.
Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung publishes "The Work of Art in the Age of
Mechanical Reproduction," German critic Walter Benjamin's influential essay
(written in 1935) concerning the role of art in an age of mass
communication.

1937
Jan. 8-9. Picasso creates two satirical etchings, entitled Dream and Lie of
Franco
, each divided into nine panels like some of the comic strips in
French newspapers of the period.
Feb. John Graham's book System and Dialectics of Art is published in Paris
(and later in the year in New York, in an English-language edition). It
explores the role of accident and the unconscious in the creative process,
automatic writing, improvisation, and ancient art, and later becomes an
important influence on the Abstract Expressionists.
July 12. Picasso presents his 26-foot-long mural Guernica at the Spanish
Republican Pavilion of the Paris World's Fair.
R.L.enrolls in Saturday morning watercolor classes at Parsons School of
Design in Manhattan (66 Fifth Avenue).

1938
Jan.-Feb. Breton and poet Paul Éluard organize Exposition internationale du
surréalisme at the Galerie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Lining the entranceway
to the exhibition is the "Surrealist Street," which consists of female
mannequins outfitted by Jean Arp, Dalí, Marcel Duchamp, Ernst, Marcel Jean,
Miró, Man Ray, Masson, and others.

1939
May 31. The Museum of Non-Objective Painting (New York; 24 East 54th Street)
opens under the directorship of Hilla Rebay von Ehrenwiesen, featuring works
by Rudolf Bauer, Juan Gris, Kandinsky, Fernand Léger, and Picasso.
Autumn. Partisan Review publishes Clement Greenberg's article "Avant-Garde
and Kitsch."
Nov. 15-Jan. 7, 1940. MoMA presents Picasso: Forty Years of His Art, curated
by Barr.


The Chronology continues decade by decade through the links on the upper left of this page.

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